Nea Paphos (New Paphos), situated on the southwest coast of Cyprus, was founded towards the end of the fourth century B.C. Cyprus came under the rule of Ptolemy soon after the foundation of Nea Paphos and for most of the Hellenistic period, up to 58 B.C. The island was of great importance to the Ptolemaic kingdom, as it was one of their primary military and naval base outside Egypt.

The city continued to prosper throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and seems to have reached its peak in the later 2nd and 3rd c. A.D. Some of the most important remains of this period are the House of Dionysus and the House of Orpheus which have costly and elaborate floor mosaics.

The House of Orpheus, named after the main mosaic found in the house depicting Orpheus playing his lyre surrounded by beasts, has a combination of a Greek and Roman architectural style. The central court is surrounded by rooms, which in the past served as the centre of the villa. The excavations have revealed a substantial portion of the structure of the House of Orpheus, covering an area of approximately 32 m x 42 m.