Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Scanning Electron Microscopy is widely used in archaeological science the last 30 years. It provides high magnification images of both inorganic and organic archaeological material revealing surface particularities. Especially, when is used on glass it can identify different phases, undissolved particles, degree of vitrification and others. On top of that when a Scanning Electron Microscope is equipped with an X-ray detector it provides full chemical characterisation or/and surface elemental mapping.

In the present project a JEOL (JSM-6510LV) Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer Oxford Instruments, was used at the Laboratory of Archaeometry of the Department of History, Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management, University of Peloponnese, Kalamata Greece. The SEM used for the detection of major and minor elements of all samples. All samples were analysed under high vacuum, with an operating voltage at 20kV and working distance for each sample of 15mm. The calibration of the system was performed with geological standards and the accuracy/ precision it was established by analysing standard reference materials (NIST SRM620, SRM1831 and SRM612).